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Description (From Publisher): This chapter has three central aims. First, we examine the validity of the claim that mainstream psychology has neglected the study of positive character traits and argue that the field of personality psychology has actually led to important advances in the understanding of character traits and their outcomes. Second, we critically evaluate the Values in Action classification of character strengths and summarize research testing its empirical structure, assessing its overlap with the Big Five trait dimensions and comparing its predictive validity to the Big Five (Noftle, Schnitker & Robins, 2010). Third, we suggest ways in which the field of positive psychology can move forward, applying the lessons of nearly a century of personality psychology. We argue that future research needs to address validity concerns, forge links between the character strengths and underlying processes, and pursue large-scale longitudinal studies examining normative development, the efficacy of interventions, and long-term real-world outcomes.