Samuelson, P. L., Jarvinen, M. J., Paulus, T. P., Church, I. M., Hardy, S. A., and Barrett, J. L. (2014). Implicit theories of intellectual virtues and vices: A focus on intellectual humility. Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(5), 389–406. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2014.967802
Abstract: The study of intellectual humility is still in its early stages and issues of definition and measurement are only now being explored. To inform and guide the process of defining and measuring this important intellectual virtue, we conducted a series of studies into the implicit theory – or ‘folk’ understanding – of an intellectually humble person, a wise person, and an intellectually arrogant person. In Study 1, 350 adults used a free-listing procedure to generate a list of descriptors, one for each person-concept. In Study 2, 335 adults rated the previously generated descriptors by how characteristic each was of the target person-concept. In Study 3, 344 adults sorted the descriptors by similarity for each person-concept. By comparing and contrasting the three person-concepts, a complex portrait of an intellectually humble person emerges with particular epistemic, self-oriented, and other-oriented dimensions.