The Science of Intellectual Humility
Identifying the relevance of the results to determine the impediments to intellectual humility, and to identify concrete strategies for overcoming these native tendencies
Project leader: Dr. Justin L. Barrett
Post-doctoral researchers: Dr. Ian Church, Dr. Peter Samuelson
Doctoral student researchers: Matt Jarvinen, Tom Paulus
Center staff: Rebecca Sok, Julia Stewart
Funded by: The John Templeton Foundation at $5.3 million dollars
Project dates: July 1, 2012 – June 20, 2015
View White Paper [.PDF]
View Subgrant Awardees
What does it mean to be intellectually humble and how can intellectual humility be encouraged?
This question is the subject of the Thrive Center’s John Templeton Foundation funded project, the “Science of Intellectual Humility,” in the midst of its run from 2012-2015. It currently involves two postdoctoral researchers and two doctoral student researchers examining specific questions surrounding intellectual humility (IH) such as:
- What is the “folk” understanding of intellectual humility? What is the nature of intellectual virtues?
- What role does trust play in the development of intellectual humility in children?
- What is the interface between ethics and epistemology?
Although humility has received significant attention, its distinctively intellectual side needs much further exploration. Intellectual humility concerns how we come to hold and retain our beliefs. It is constituted by a state of openness to new ideas, receptivity to new sources of evidence and the implications of that evidence, and willingness to revise even deeply held beliefs in the face of compelling reasons. The project’s ultimate goal is to inform work in philosophy, theology, and clinical psychology in ways that will lead to greater openness, more civil discourse, and flourishing in human relationships.
The first of three years has been completed on the project. Our research team has produced a White Paper as part of an initial volume of research. The White Paper was used to help guide other leading scientists—as well as theologians, traditional philosophers, and experimental philosophers— who were proposing intellectual humility research projects in a response to a request for proposals. The entire body of research in intellectual humility developed under this grant is part of an effort to devote more attention to the subject of intellectual humility.
Fuller has selected 18 research teams to receive awards totaling nearly $4 million from the grant. These teams will conduct scientific research on the nature, implications, and ultimate causes of intellectual humility and arrogance—resulting in a body of literature and two conferences that will promote dialogue and collaboration on the topic
This project supports:
- Research on under-explored areas in psychology and evolution of intellectual humility / arrogance
- Critical engagement between the cognitive and evolutionary sides
- Dissemination of research in the field in order to advance its philosophical and theological significance
Intellectual Humility News & Articles
Dr. Joshua Hook, one of the researchers working on the Templeton Foundation funded Intellectual Humility Project, is a finalist in a contract to win a book contract through the Barna Group. Dr. Hook’s book proposal is about the importance of humility in the context of religious differences. The premise of this popular book is well aligned with the research being conducted by the Thrive Center and other institutions in Intellectual Humility.
To learn more about Dr. Hook’s proposal and to vote, click HERE (opens in new window) to vote on Barna Frames on Facebook. You can also read Dr. Joshua Hook’s full proposal below:
Josh Hook- Religious Conviction in a Multi-Faith World? Engage with Humility
Much of the brokenness in our world is due to our inability to be in community with individuals and groups who are different from us. This brokenness happens on a global scale, but it also happens in our governments, schools, workplaces, and playgrounds. Sometimes religion helps to heal divisions, but just as often, religion fuels the fires of conflict. Christians inform strangers they are going to Hell without even asking their names. Tension between Christians and Muslims runs deep, with the Crusades and 9/11 bookending over a millennium of conflict. Our government divides sharply over religiously charged issues such as gay marriage and abortion. The underlying message is this: If God is for me, then He must be against you. This conflict isn’t just a worldly matter between groups of different faiths; it’s a holy war. The stakes are high because the consequences are eternal. Positions become entrenched, making it difficult to engage respectfully and peacefully with those we consider the “other.” I believe division could be replaced with healing if people engaged one another with humility around matters of faith.
Sometimes I think things are getting worse rather than better. I feel a sense of despair and lose hope that things could be different. This book is for Christians who care deeply about the division and conflict in our society, but don’t know what to do to bridge the gap. This book is for Christians who struggle with the tension that comes from holding religious convictions that can offend and turn away people from different faiths. This book is for Christians who are serious about engaging and collaborating with a pluralistic world for the common good. We need to figure out a way to foster peace with others who do not share in the peace of Christ.
Some strategies to solve this problem haven’t worked well. It hasn’t worked to avoid the important issues and leave the conversation. The world needs engaged Christians who are actively committed to showing God’s love and grace. However, it also hasn’t worked to convince everyone in our society to align with a specific religious or political ideology. It hasn’t worked to force everyone to adopt my version of religion, mypolitical party, my set of beliefs and values.
When it comes to my deepest convictions, I struggle to engage others well. Either I avoid the tough issues, or I prepare my best arguments for why I’m right, convinced that if only others would see things my way, then the world would be better. But somewhere along the way I realized that not only is my world broken, but my gospel sometimes feels broken. I get confused about how to “keep the baby but throw out the bath water.” How do I honor my religious convictions and cultivate peace with others who do not know Christ?
I think there is a better way. I want to understand what it means to hold my religious convictions well—in a way that builds bridges rather than burns them down. A form of tolerance that loosens all convictions is not the answer. I believe there is something good, true, and right about some convictions. They help me connect with and experience the love of God. They strengthen and bind my spiritual community together. And they motivate me to bring love, grace, and justice to a world in need.
But people hold different religious convictions. We disagree within the same pew, much more the same city block, nation, or world. These disagreements often lead to division and conflict. As the world becomes more flat and our society grows more interconnected psychologically and technologically, I experience increased contact and connection with individuals and groups who are different from me.
I feel a tension from this contact and connection. On one hand, I have strong religious convictions that impact my thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in important ways. On the other hand, I have a deep desire to foster peaceful relationships with those around me, including those who believe differently. When is it okay to offend others or break community because of my convictions? When is it better to prioritize unity and peace? I long to be faithful to what I believe and foster meaningful connections with those who are different.
So what do we do with this intractable tension? I believe that the fundamental solution to dealing with others who have different beliefs, when you believe that beliefs matter, is humility. Humility is a “way of being” while in relationship with others. Humility puts others on equal footing, not looking down on them from a superior position, but rather engaging them as fellow human beings with voices that deserve respect. Humility involves examining the log in my own eye before I pass judgment on someone else. Jesus taught that when Earth looks more like Heaven, people would treat each other with humility. He washed his disciples’ feet and told them to do likewise. Jesus taught his disciples “the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them… Not so with you. Instead, whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant.” Paul wrote in Philippians that we should model our lives after the humility of Jesus.
Some of what I learned in Christian community is “bath water”—a broken gospel, still clinging to something other than Christ. I struggle to hold my religious convictions well, in a way that embraces rather than ostracizes those who are different from me. How did Jesus do it? How did He balance deep conviction and integrity to God’s purpose for his life with a courageous ability to blow past social convention into deep relationship with the “other?” We need a solution that allows us to hold our religious convictions while fostering peace with those who are different. This is my hope and prayer: that we may follow the example of Jesus and hold our religious convictions—and engage the world—with humility.
Vote at https://www.facebook.com/barnaframes/app_592919060777532
Posted in: Intellectual Humility
November 18th, the Thrive Center hosted the second of its three quarterly Thrive Reflectoriums. For those who may not be aware, these monthly Reflectoriums are a space where the scholars of the Thrive Center for Human Development come together to share research and ideas with each other, with the mindset that the more minds weighing in on a research question, the better. This month, Dr. Samuleson, a Thrive Center Post-Doctoral research fellow, and Kelsy Richardson, a Thrive Center fellow, both presented research in their individual fields. Here’s a recap of what you might have missed.
Dr. Samuelson presented some of the research from his project titled, “The Science of Intellectual Humility.” More specifically, Dr. Samuleson’s presentation was focused on the implicit theories of intellectual humility. The research was focused on the attribution of words or phrases towards the categories of an intellectually humble, wise, or intellectually arrogant person. Dr. Samuelson’s work demonstrated the main categories of descriptors that each of these types of people receive and the possible implications for the ways in which we perceive intellectual or wise people.
Kelsy Richardson presented her research titled, “Prayer Practices and Gratitude: Comparing Daily Prayers of Thanksgiving to Gratitude Journaling and Social Gratitude.” Kelsy’s research demonstrated how participants who prayed their gratitude developed higher levels of virtue and positive life experiences than other participants who either kept a gratitude journal or shared their gratitude with a friend. Kelsy also discussed the future directions of her study, including a follow-up study utilizing hassles and prayers of supplication.
Don’t miss our next Thrive Reflectorium, Monday December 9th at 11am in the School of Psychology building room 311. Dr. Ryan Hornbeck will be presenting some of his research from a Templeton World Charity Foundation grant titled, “Is Religion Natural? The Chinese Challenge.”
-Kelsy Richardson, Thrive Center Fellow (2013-2014)
Posted in: Intellectual HumilityPrayer PracticesResearchStudents
In the context of discussing Thomas Aquinas’s view of the incarnation, Gerald O’Collins writes that “the incarnation should also be recognized as the highest conceivable development for humanity” (2002, p. 17). If so, we may profitably wonder what features or properties of the incarnation contribute to or constitute “the highest conceivable development for humanity” such that we may strive to approach them and, hence, thrive. I will not attempt a full exploration of Christ’s human characteristics that collectively epitomize thriving. Here I only argue that Philippians chapter 2 suggests one characteristic of human thriving that appears to be underappreciated in the psychological literature on thriving and in contemporary American culture: humble submission. -
When considering what it is about Jesus Christ that made him the “highest conceivable development for humanity,” it is tempting to think in terms of extraordinary capacities or some genius that he possessed. Was it his wisdom as evinced in his teachings? His power over nature as when he calmed the sea, healed the sick, or raised the dead? Or perhaps his authority over evil spirits? Without necessarily denying those traits as part of our full human potential, Paul’s letter to the Philippians encourages us, when trying to conform to Jesus’ model, to look to an orientation rather than a capacity.
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Posted in: Intellectual HumilityNews Articles
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Psychology Today published an article by researchers Sara Haga and Kristina Olson from the University of Washington studying intellectual humility. Drs. Haga and Olson are working alongside 18 other institutions to study the developmental origins of intellectual humility with funding from The Thrive Center and the John Templeton Foundation.
Click Here to read this article.
Click Here to read the abstract from the University of Washington.
Click Here for more information about the Intellectual Humility Project.
Posted in: Intellectual HumilityResearch